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Electrical Resistance Welding (ERW)
This forged welding provides a secured metallurgical joining by pressurizing and melting the two mating materials together. The optimum welding is slightly less than their melting temperatures. Common names are spot welding, seam welding and projection welding. High electrically and thermally conductive Cu alloy electrodes are common as a welding electrode. They pass an electrical current through the work piece and the lower electrically conductive work pieces are welded. In this process, a heat will be generated by the following formula:
Q = I2 · R · t

where Q is the heat energy, I is the current, R is the electrical resistance and t is the time when the current is applied.